1914 Opposing the Great War


People of conscience from throughout Europe gathered in the city of Constance, Germany to express their opposition to the impending world war. British Quaker Henry Hodgkin, and German protestant Friedrich Sigmund-Schultze make a commitment in Cologne that while their countries may be at war with each other, “We are one in Christ and can never be at war.”


The Fellowship of Reconciliation is established in Britain and Versöhnungsbund in Germany in the midst of war, inspiring similar Christian pacifist groups in the Netherlands, Sweden, the USA, Denmark and Germany. 600 British FOR members are sent to prison for refusing military service, while the founder of the FOR/Germany is sentenced to death for organizing aid for British prisoners of war.

1926 IFOR & Gandhi


Gandhi invites IFOR Travelling Secretary Muriel Lester to India in support of the independence movement.

1919 First Peace Project


Christian pacifists from 10 different countries meet in the Netherlands to establish the International Fellowship of Reconciliation. IFOR's first project is the evacuation of hundreds of starving children from Austria to Britain.

1920 Establishing Service Civil


IFOR Secretary Pierre Cérésole establishes Service Civil (International Voluntary Service for Peace), which organizes work camps in areas torn apart by war, with volunteers from former enemy countries.

1928 Reconciling Europe


The IFOR office in Vienna, Austria, works for reconciliation between Poland and Germany.